Acute bronchitis is an acute inflammatory disease caused by viruses, bacteria and fungi in large respiratory tract called bronchus. In addition, inhalation of acidic and alkaline substances may also occur with non-inflammatory acute bronchitis.
Airway viruses are among the leading causes of acute bronchitis. Most cases of acute bronchitis occur with Influenza, Parainfluenza, Coryza virus, Adenoviruses and Respiratory syncytial viruses.
Acute bronchitis with bacteria is relatively rare. Hemophilus influenza, Pneumococci, Streptococci, and Staphylococci are the leading cause of acute bronchitis.
Rarely, Candida and Aspergillosa fungi may also cause acute bronchitis.
Usually the disease begins in the form of a nose and throat infection. Occasionally, acute bronchitis may occur without any complaints of upper respiratory tract.
At the beginning of the disease there is a frequent recurrent and dry cough. A few days later, a coughing and sputum complaints are included. Sputum, which is initially characterized by normal characteristics, becomes inflamed after a while.
In some cases, complaints of high fever, malaise and malaise may be seen. Some patients may also have chest pain due to irritation of large airways.
Physical examination findings may be normal. In cases where the airways are blocked by edema and dark sputum, abnormal sounds called rhonchus can be heard. If there is soft sputum in the bronchus, abnormal breathing sounds called ral can be heard. Although Raller is commonly heard in both lungs, it may be less prominent in some areas and more prominent in some areas.
The chest radiography can be found as normal because of respiratory tract retention and normal lung tissue in acute bronchitis. In some cases, lung tissue can also be affected by inflammation and lung radiographs may show marked changes in the airways and vascular structures.
In acute bronchitis caused by bacteria, there may be an increase in the number of white blood cells in the blood and in the rate of blood collapse. In sputum examinations, bacteria or fungi can be produced and viruses are difficult to detect.
Diagnosis of acute bronchitis is made by evaluating the patient's complaints, examination findings and laboratory tests together.
The patient's room should be warm and humid. Antibiotic therapy is not required in the treatment of acute bronchitis with and without fever. Antibiotic should be used in acute bronchitis of small children, elderly people, heart patients, emphysema and chronic bronchitis. In cases with high fever, antibiotics should be given.
In patients with fever and pain, pain relief and antipyretics should be added to the treatment. In patients who cannot remove sputum, cough suppressants can be started if there is persistent and disturbing dry cough. Expectorant drugs should be used in case of sputum.
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