Before we start to give information about colon cancer, let's make an introduction by sharing some details about what this organ is, its function and place in our body. The colon is the narrow section that forms the upper part of the large intestine. Used for colon between people large bowel therefore, it would not be wrong. The colon, which is a digestive system, is located between the anus and the small intestine. Average length 1.5-2 meters The large intestine, which is one-fifth of the digestive system, covers a large part.
Large area at the head of the large intestine cecum is called. After that, the part that continues to shrink column this is the section. Afterwards rectum There are sections called. The small intestine is wrapped around the small intestine. If we collect the large intestine; cecum, colon, rectum and anal channel. The task of the column is to remove water and minerals from the food and store the remainder in the anus to be thrown through the feces.
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It is more prevalent than small bowel cancer. It is even known to be one of the most common types of cancer in the world. According to the Ministry of Health, it is among the top five most common cancers in our country. Colon cancer that can be seen at any age occurs mostly in people over 50 years of age. Although the cause is not completely clarified, genetic predisposition, inflammatory diseases, unhealthy nutrition, poor living conditions, polyps in the intestines are among the most important causes.
What Is Colon Cancer?
As we have mentioned above in general, the colon is actually a part of the large intestine. Therefore, when we hear colon cancer expression, we have to think of large bowel cancer. The large intestine absorbs the water, inorganic salts and fatty acids in the nutrients taken by the mouth. The remaining nutrients after the absorption are kept in the anus for excretion by defecation.
Anus is the starting point of the large intestine. The cancer is caused by damage to the DNA of the cells here, resulting in an uncontrolled proliferation of cancer. Colon cancer is called colon cancer or colon cancer. In terms of gender, the rate of men and women is almost the same.
Among all cancers 3rd most common cancer It is kind. Although there are cases of all ages, in general 50 years and older It is known that people get more colon cancer. Cancer formation first begins in the cells in the colon, then wave wave propagation. If it is not diagnosed early, it will spread to the nearest organs, lymph nodes and other parts of the body through the blood circulation.
What are the stages of colon cancer?
Colon cancer occurs in four stages according to the course of the disease. Staging is carried out to determine the degree of the disease, which organs are passed and the correct steps in the treatment.
- Stage I: It is the early stage of the disease. The cancer cells or tumor are already in the inner and middle layers of the intestine.
- Stage II: The tumor began to spread to the deeper walls of the column. But cancer has not spread to the lymph nodes. After the pathological examination, it is seen that the cancer is high grade and spread to the neighboring organs, surgical operation is performed and radiotherapy is applied.
- Stage III: The cancer is now spread to the lymph nodes but not to other organs or other parts of the body.
- Stage IV: At this stage, the last and most advanced stage of the disease, cancer has spread to vital organs such as lungs, liver.
What are the causes (causes) of colon cancer?
As with all other types of cancer, this is the main reason for colon cancer. However, when we look at the information and statistics compiled from the cases that have occurred so far genetic Factors are significant. In other words, if someone has colon cancer in the family, you are at risk.
Not only colon cancer, but any of your first-degree relatives have previously had breast or ovarian cancer, you are still in a risky group. Besides gardner syndrome, familial polyposis, ulcerative colitis and crohn diseases are also seen among the causes of colon cancer.
Bad nutrition is also here. Animal fat consuming foods containing too much, not eating enough fruit and vegetables, and of course, excessive smoking is one of the causes of colon cancer. Another reason advanced age. Research has revealed that most of the people who have colon cancer are 50 years or older.
in the gut polyps it can also cause cancer. Excess fat and unhealthy diet, overweight, smoking and alcohol consumption leads to the formation of polyps. In routine screening tests, polyps are recognized and if taken immediately, they do not turn into cancer. However, the presence of unrecognized polyps leads to the risk of colon cancer. These polyps, which can be between 1 and 2 cm in length, do not pass spontaneously, have a genetic predisposition and are more common in those who are extremely stressful and inactive.
What are the symptoms of colon cancer?
Symptoms such as loss of appetite, fatigue, weight loss, immediate feeling of feeling, constipation are the first precursors of colon cancer. The most common and common symptom is constipation, ie hemorrhoids. A disease in itself the hemorrhoids the reasons if you want to learn click here.
If you have a tumor in the intestine, a pain in the abdomen It makes. Then you have difficulty in defecation. Because the resulting tumor will cause congestion in the intestines and will cause severe pain at the time of defecation. Even gas extraction is becoming a torture for the patient. Another indication that shows itself very clearly; bloody stool and the narrowing of the feces. When you observe yourself in such a situation, you should be examined by a physician.
However, the diagnosis of colon cancer is very easy. colonoscopy thanks to the large intestine can be examined in all details. In the meantime, if there are small tumors with polyps, they can be intervened immediately and prevent cancer. Another method used for early diagnosis sigmoidoscopy is. This also has a chance to display the column again. The blood test used in the diagnosis of each disease, and fecal occult blood tests also help in the diagnosis of colon cancer.
What are the ways to prevent colon cancer?
If you want to prevent colon cancer, you can start by identifying the things that cause it and avoiding it. Remove too many fatty foods, especially those with high fat levels from your diet list. Consuming plenty of fruit and vegetables is protective against colon cancer. Especially high fiber ratio It will be more useful if you select ones.
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Regular health checks, sport to make your lifestyle, not sitting in the toilet for a long time will reduce the likelihood of colon cancer. Another method suggested by experts is to consume green tea. Drink 1-2 cups of green tea a day, not only colon cancer, but many other types of cancer will protect you.
What is the Treatment of Colon Cancer?
Surgery is the most preferred method in colon cancer. In addition, chemotherapy is another form of treatment that is used to prevent the formation of new cancer cells from early stages or after surgery.
- Surgical treatment: Surgical methods can be performed more often if the disease is at an early stage. The tumor, which has not grown much and has not spread to other organs, is removed by cutting it together with some healthy tissue around it. After this, the remaining solid parts are bonded together. Surgical intervention in this process anastomosis is called. If, after removal of the tumor, the solid part cannot be attached to each other, the doctor opens a hole in the wall of the abdomen which will expel the contents of the large intestine and connects the intestines here. If this is the process colostomy It is called. In the colostomy method, a bag is inserted into the opening and the stool is deposited there.
- Chemotherapy: In order to prevent the destruction or proliferation of cancer cells, the administration of the drugs to the body through the vein is called chemotherapy. Chemotherapy, which is an alternative treatment method in almost every cancer type, suffers a lot from the patient. Chemotherapy, usually in the treatment of colon cancer, with a mixture of two or more drugs, every two weeks, 6 months It is applied in such a way as to last.
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