Chemical kinase of protein kinase to other proteins
by adding groups (by phosphorylation)
is an enzyme that changes. This is, in general, the target protein
(substrate) leads to a functional change. This
changes in enzyme activity, within the cell
in situ alteration or association with other proteins
can be in the form of. Approximately 30% of all proteins
may be affected. Kinases, especially between cells
it is known that it plays a regulatory role in signal transduction.
What is Phosphorylation?
Phosphorylation to a protein or a small molecule
or phosphate (PO4) group to an inorganic molecule
It is added. Many enzymes and receptors, phosphorylation
and de-phosphorylation on / off (on / off)
switch positions. Phosphorylation of various proteins
kinases. Phosphatases are dephosphorylated.
Phosphatase hydrolyzes phosphoric acid mono-esters
by a phosphate ion and a free hydroxyl
is an enzyme that converts the group to a molecule. This
the kinase process using the energy of ATPs
Phosphorylase added phosphate group to its substrates
And vice versa.
What is kinase?
Some of these enzymes are involved in an “enzyme family” called receptor tyrosine kinase, a portion of which allows the division of cells by transmitting the signals from the internal and external inclusions of the cell to “divide, multiply, urea, become more, occupy the organism”. These signals are essential for cancer cells, although it is very necessary in cases where growth-promoting children, or cells such as wound healing, are necessary. therefore, drugs that inhibit these enzymes have been produced which are called kinase inhibitors.
Cyclin dependent kinase
EC, category 188.8.131.52 Protein kinase
Substrate ATP + protein
Products ADP + phosphoprotein
Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are a group of protein kinases involved in the control of the cell cycle by activating a variety of other enzymes at specific times by phosphorylation.
CDKs form complexes with the cyclins that undergo cell cycle-dependent concentration changes. The cyclin-dependent kinases are active only in conjunction with their associated cyclin. This allows the activity of the CDKs in the cell to be timed and regulated. Thus, they are allowed to perform their function in certain phases of the cell cycle, which are linked to the cyclic concentration changes of the cyclins. An example is the mitosis-promoting factor formed from CDK1 and cyclin B, which controls the initiation of mitosis. 
What does pyruvate kinase mean?
An enzyme from the transferase class which catalyzes the reaction of ATP and pyruvate by transferring high-energy phosphate from phosphoenolpyruvate to glypholite in AD. One of the enzymes that regulates the working speed of the glycolytic pathway.
Pyruvate kinase deficiency is the most common enzyme abnormality observed in the embden-meyerhof tract. or pass. homozygotes are important hemolysis. atp decreases with detectable glycolysis. Erythrocytes are rigid, deformed and unstable. reticulocytes are more resistant to oxidative phosphorylation than they can produce atp. 2.3 dpg increases, auto hemolysis has increased significantly. (improves with atp, does not improve with glucose). the number of reticulocytes increased. they are intermediate products that accumulate during glycolysis, which is the main cause of hemolysis. However, one of the increasing intermediate products is 2-3 dpg, hb oxygen is released easily reduces the hypoxia. There is a clinical picture ranging from severe neonatal hemolytic anemia to mildly good, compensated anemia in adulthood. jaundice and anemia in the neonatal period. Because of chronic hemolysis in children and adults, there are pallor, jaundice and seplenomegaly in hemoglobin levels ranging from 8-12 gr / dl. reflects the increase in the number of reticulocytes by mild macrocytosis and polychromatophilia. spherocytosis is rare, but several needles are usually found. The osmotic fragility test is normal, autohemolysis is increased, the addition of glucose to the environment does not correct the abnormality. The diagnosis is made by showing that pyruvate kinase activity in erythrocytes decreases. splenectomy is the treatment if folic acid support and transfusion requirement is more.
Side Effects and Control in the Treatment of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are currently the standard treatment modalities for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Although they are generally safe and effective, some side effects may occur during the use of TKIs. These side effects are often mild, but sometimes both physicians and patients may be forced to choose alternative treatment. In this paper, the side effects that may occur during the use of 3 TKIs (imatinib, nilotinib and dasatinib) which are approved in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia are mentioned. In addition, methods that can be used in the management of these side effects are discussed.
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