Scoliosis causes the spine to bend to one side. It can affect any part of the spine, but the most common areas are the chest and waist.
It often occurs in children. In most cases, treatment is not necessary and curvature improves with growth. However, depending on the degree of curvature and the age of the child, support clothing and physical therapy are often recommended.
A small number of patients with scoliosis require surgery. Complications of scoliosis include chronic pain, respiratory problems and reduced exercise capacity.
Basic Information about Scoliosis
Here are some basic information about scoliosis. Details are in progress.
- The cause of scoliosis is often unknown.
- Few people need surgery.
- In infants, there is a lateral protrusion in the chest.
- Women are more common than men.
What is Scoliosis?
The scoliosis has an inclination of C and S in the spine of the individual.
It may occur at any age, but it usually occurs at 10-12 years of age or occurs in adolescents, but sometimes symptoms may also occur in infants.
The cause of the change is generally unknown, but some cases are associated with cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, spina bifida and birth defects.
The structural slope is permanent and can sometimes be caused by another inconvenience. The non-structural curvature is temporary and tends to disappear over time.
Most scoliosis children with little inclination do not need treatment.
The doctor may recommend follow-up for every 4-6 months of oblique observation and X-ray examination.
The following factors are important for the physician to evaluate treatment options:
- Gender: Women are more likely to have scoliosis, which is likely to get worse over time.
- The size of the curvature: The larger the curvature, the greater the likelihood of deterioration over time. The so-called S-shaped and double-sloped curves also tend to deteriorate over time. C-shaped ones are less likely to get worse.
- Curvature position: Curves in the middle of the spine are more likely to deteriorate compared to those on the lower and upper parts.
- Bone maturity: When the development of the person's bones stops, there is a chance that it will deteriorate. Bones are more effective when they grow yet.
Sometimes the support devices are replaced by gypsum to restore its spine to its normal position as the baby grows. This plaster is applied with a mold.
The mold is attached to the outside of the patient's body and worn continuously. Because the baby grows fast, the mold is changed regularly.
If the patient has moderate scoliosis and the bones are still developing, the doctor may recommend a corset. This prevents further skewing, but does not reverse the process. The corset is usually worn all the time, even at night. The more the patient puts in the day, the more effective it is.
The corset does not normally limit the child's movements. If he wants to participate in physical activities, he can be removed.
Corset is no longer used when bone development stops. Two types of corsets available:
- TLSO: Made of plastic and adapts to body lines. It's usually invisible underneath.
- Milwaukee corset: The whole body corset is provided with a ring on the neck and provides support for the back of the head with the jaw. Only the TLSO type corset is not used.
In one study, it was observed that wearing corsets in 10-15 year old children with idiopathic scoliosis prevented worsening of the condition and prevented the need for surgery.
Scoliosis is normally visible in infancy and adulthood.
Symptoms in Adults
The most common form of scoliosis occurs in adults. This is called adult idiopathic scoliosis. Children from the age of 10 can affect.
The word idiopathic is unclear, and his symptoms are as follows:
- the head is not gently centered.
- rib cage is not symmetrical and ribs can be different
- one hip is ahead of the other
- clothes don't sit properly
- one shoulder or shoulder blade higher than the other
- person may stand obliquely
- Leg length is not equal
Symptoms in infants
In infants, the symptoms may be:
- Baby can be continuously inclined to one side
- In severe cases, heart and lung problems can cause shortness of breath and chest pain
Some types of scoliosis can cause low back pain, but they are not usually very painful. Low back pain can also occur in adults with long-term scoliosis.
If untreated, the consequences of worsening heart and lung function may occur in later stages of life.
Various exercises are recommended for scoliosis and different schools offer different strategies. But all of them aim to bring the spine, chest cage, shoulders and hip to a normal posture.
In 2016, researchers said there is more evidence that sports helps scoliosis, but more work is needed to determine which exercises are more effective.
In severe cases, scoliosis may progress over time. In this case, the doctor may recommend spinal fusion. This surgery reduces the curvature of the spine and prevents it from becoming worse.
Scoliosis may be the following:
- Bone graph: Two or more vertebra bones are connected with new bone grafts. Sometimes metal bars, screws and cables are used to heal the bone while the bone is healing.
- Intensive care: The operation takes 4-8 hours. After surgery, the child is taken to the intensive care unit and intravenous fluids and painkillers are given. In most cases, the child can leave the intensive care unit after 24 hours, but may need to stay in the hospital for 7-10 days.
- Recovery: The child usually returns to school after 4-6 weeks and can do sports 1 year after surgery. In some cases, 6 months may be necessary to support the lumbar spine.
The patient will need to return to the hospital every 6 months to extend the bars, and this is usually a standing procedure, so the patient does not have to spend the night. The rods are surgically removed when the spine grows.
The doctor only recommends this when the benefits of spinal fusion outweigh the risks. The risks are:
- Rod offset: The metal bar can slide from its correct position, which may require an operation.
- Pseudoarthrosis: One of the bones used to join the spine does not adhere correctly and causes a slight discomfort, preventing the spine to recover successfully. More operation may be required.
- Infection: This is usually treated with antibiotics.
- Nerve damage: damage to the nerves of the spine occurs and may cause severe problems such as loss of all lower body functions as well as mild symptoms such as numbness in one or two legs.
A neurosurgeon should be present in scoliosis surgery.
Some possible causes of scoliosis are as follows:
- Neuromuscular disorders: These can affect nerves and muscles and include cerebral palsy, poliomyelitis and muscular dystrophy.
- Congenital scoliosis: This is rare and occurs when the baby develops in the womb while the spine develops in an unusual way.
- Some genes: At least one gene is thought to be associated with scoliosis.
- Leg length: If one leg is longer than the other, the individual may develop scoliosis.
- Syndromic scoliosis: Scoliosis may occur as part of other diseases such as neurofibromatosis or Marfan syndrome.
- Osteroporosis: This may cause secondary scoliosis due to bone degeneration.
- Other reasons: bad posture, bag transport, connective tissue disorders and disabilities.
The risk factors for scoliosis are as follows:
- Age: Signs and signs usually appear at the stage of growth just before puberty.
- Gender: Women are more at risk.
- Genetics: There may be discomfort in close relatives of people with scoliosis.
The Scoliosis Society of England states that there are five basic types of scoliosis:
- Congenital scoliosis: the correct formation of the spine before delivery.
- Early scoliosis occurs between 10 and 10 years of age.
- Adult idiopathic scoliosis: occurs when the child is growing and causes the spine to bend and twist.
- Degenerative scoliosis: is caused by disruption and erosion of the skeletal system in adults, whether or not they are scoliosis.
- Neuromuscular scoliosis: is caused by problems in the muscle and nervous system.
- Scheuermann kyphosis: the anterior parts of the spine bones grow slower than the backs, making them smaller.
- Syndromic scoliosis: It is associated with various symptoms such as Marfan syndrome and trisomy 21.
The doctor performs a spinal examination of the chest with a physical examination of the chest, hips and shoulders.
The doctor can measure the level of scoliosis with the help of the inclinometer or scoliometer.
The patient can be directed to the orthopedist.
X-ray, CT and MRI scans can also help with the shape, direction, and angle of inclination.
What is scoliosis, how is it treated? Ayse Tolga first appeared on Good Life.
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